• “Even if you played 60 million hands of poker for 70 years, 12 hours a day, and never made any mistakes, you still wouldn't be able to say with statistical confidence you were better than this program,” said study author and computer scientist Michael Bowling.
  • Because Cepheus is its own opponent, the game just keeps getting tougher to win. The strategy keeps adapting based on these regrets; mathematically the regrets start to go toward zero, and a near-perfect solution emerges.
  • Heads-up, limit hold'em marks the first imperfect-information game competitively played by humans that has been essentially solved, according to the research. Poker, with its core strategy of bluffing, thoroughly embodies a situation in which players hide information to their advantage.

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