• Safety tests on three people, published in the journal Science, showed the immune system could be trained to fight skin cancers. The American team say the early results mark a "significant step" towards personalised cancer vaccines.
  • The team, mainly based in St Louis and Oklahoma City, analysed the genetic mutations to predict the new and unique flags that would be flown by the cancer cells. A computer algorithm then analysed the new flags, known as neoantigens, to decide which would be the best targets for a vaccine.
  • Personalised vaccines were given to three patients with advanced tumours in 2013. One was in remission and has stayed cancer-free; another still has stable tumours; and the third patient's tumour shrank in the months after the vaccine before returning to its original size and remaining stable.

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