• When delivered through the lung, particles with a positive surface charge were shown to induce antibody responses both locally in the lung and systemically in the body.
  • In contrast, negatively charged particles of the same composition led to weaker, and in some cases undetectable, immune responses, suggesting that particle charge is an important consideration for pulmonary vaccination.
  • The findings also have broad public health implications for improving the accessibility of vaccines. An inhalable vaccine may eliminate the need for refrigeration, which can not only improve shelf life, but also enable distribution of vaccines to low-resource areas.

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