Spintronics uses the spin of individual electrons as the encoding method for data. This is significantly smaller than using charge, which requires thousands of electrons. Unfortunately, impurities in metal limit the size of components.
By substituting graphene for metal, researchers in Sweden believe they can overcome the limitations and extend the area of a spintronics device from nanometres to millimetres. Data can be transferred from electron to electron by the magnetic effect of the spin.
Spintronics is already used in some hard drives and memory, and the University of Cambridge has investigated 3D processor design using the tech and aims to create spintronics devices by improving the purity of metals through advanced chemistry.