• The technique combines two existing state-of-the-art neurotechnologies, one of them is optogenetics and the other is calcium imaging
  • The technique may eventually allow researchers to do away with the cumbersome microelectrodes they traditionally used to probe neuronal activity, and to interrogate the brain’s workings at the cellular level in real time and with unprecedented detai
  • The combination of methods enabled the researchers to determine which neurons contribute to a particular function, and then target them very precisely. To demonstrate the precision of the technique, they used a programmable device called a spatial light modulator that splits the light beam into a hologram consisting of smaller ‘beamlets’, and then simultaneously activated six neurons arranged in the shape of a smiley face

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