This very colorful field of view contains an extremely famous object: a supernova remnant known as the Jellyfish Nebula, found approximately 5,000 light-years from Earth in the Gemini Constellation. Ultimately, the remnant is a small part of a much larger whole—called IC 443.
Based on a number of factors, astronomers estimate that the explosion that proceeded the formation of the remnant happened around 35,000 years ago--with the light traversing the intervening space, and arriving on Earth 30,000 years back (when the Neanderthals went extinct).
This image of the Jellyfish nebula was taken using NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (more commonly known as WISE). NASA examines the region, points out objects of interest, and explains what the colors mean (See a larger image here):